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lrg2019-06-12 ߣZ ԴڣZWվ
  

I. listening Comprehension

Section A

Directions: In Section A, you will hear ten short conversations between two speakers.

At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. The

 conversations and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a conve-

rsation and a question about it, read the four possible answers on your paper and

decide which one is the best answer to the question you have heard.

 

 

 

1.­­

M: Is there a new bookstore on Fuzhou Road?

W: Yes, its got very good novels of the 20th century.

Q: What are the speakers mainly talking about

 

2.

W: Mike, are you OK?

M: I injured my back yesterday just by sneezing. My doctor said I need surgery.

Q: What can be learnt about the man?

 

3.

M: Which team are you going to support?

W: You are not going to talk about football again, are you? Thats it.

Q: How does the woman feel about discussing football?

 

4.

M: Mary is not in the company. Has she returned from Xian yet?

W: Yes, but before she went to Chengdu yesterday, she had been home for only

one day.

Q: Where is Mary now

 

5.

M: What? Steven is drinking orange juice.

W: You cant believe it. Now he is careful about what he eats and takes regular

exercise.

Q: What does the woman imply about Steven?

 

6.

M: Ive moved the flower into the garden and water it every day. How come it

is still not doing well?

W: Well, why not add some fertilizer. Maybe that will help.

Q: According to the woman, what may the flower need?

 

7.

M: Wow, you won the first prize in the writing contest. You havent taken any

courses on reading and writing.

W: But I have been keeping a diary since childhood.

Q: According to the woman, what helped her win the contest?

 

8.

M: You like tennis so much. Why not take some lessons? They start next week.

W: How am I going to fit that into my crowed schedule?

Q: What does the woman mean?

 

9.

W: Walk to the park? You must be kidding. It takes only five minutes to drive

there.

M: If I had remembered to charge my car.

Q: What can be learnt about the man?

 

10.

W: Youve been dealing with that budget report for nearly an hour. Anything

wrong?

M: I keep adding and reading the numbers, but they just dont balance.

Q: What is the man doing?

 

 

̌Ԓcu

 

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һ ֔

 

ԭtһPI~

οԇĵ12810}ҿԸPI~bookstoresurgerycrowed schedule

budget reportadding and readingҵʾ

 

ԭtעfԒZ

3Thats it!wFŮʿ͟Z⡣

 

ԭtպáh̖

һ㮔 why not_𰸵Ę־ˣ籾ԇ}6why not add

some fertilizerٽYPI~fertilizerД𰸡

 

ԭtģƔ֮

еĕrvԒfĺֱףҪƔ֮ʲô@NƔ@ʾ

4}ȥɶ֮ǰֻڼҴһ족Ɣ֮Mary˿̿

лڳɶ}ҲԵƣ͹˾ųҲԎ}

 

ԭt壺̓MZ

@c׺ÿ궼漰9}If I had remembered to charge my carʹõ

̓MZ⣬ӛó늵Ԓõ̓MZ⣬ôŒ܇]г늣

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ͬWƽr ĕrҪעYϼɣһ°빦

 

Section B

Directions: In Section B, you will hear two passages and one longer conversation.

 After each passage or conversation you will be asked several questions, the pass-

ages and the conversation will be read twice, but questions will be spoken only

once. When you hear a question, read the four possible answers on your paper

and decide which one is the best answer to the question you have heard.

 

Questions 11 through 13 are based on the following talk.

 

    Its common for you, nonfiction writers, to go forth into an area you know

little about. You may worry that you're not qualified to bring the story back. I

feel that anxiety every time I start a new project. I felt it when I went to Bra-

denton to write my baseball book spring training. Although I've been a baseb-

all fan all my life, I have never done any sports reporting, never interviewed

a professional athlete. Any of the men I approached with a notebook could

have asked, What else have you written about baseball? But nobody did.

They didnt ask because I was sincere. It was obvious to those men that I

really wanted to know how they did their work. Remember this when you

enter a new area and need a shot of confidence. What matters is how you

do it. Also remember that your assignment may not be as narrow as you

think. Often it will turn out to touch some unexpected corner of your expe-

rience or your education, enabling you to broaden the story with strength

of your own. Every such reduction of the unfamiliar will reduce your fear.

 

Questions:

11. According to the speaker, when may nonfiction writers feel worried?

12. Why did nobody in Bradenton care about what the speaker had writt-

en before?

13. According to the speaker, how does nonfiction writers experience

or education benefit them?

 

 

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y^ͣ˼ 棨rgԭͷ͌µ⡣ 冖}

Ɇ~ҰסPI~a new projectsincere͡strength of your

ownϾx_ˡ

14. 𰸅ԭij̎Its common for you, nonfiction writers, to go f-

orth into an area you know little about. You may worry that you're not q-

ualified to bring the story back. I feel that anxiety every time I start a new

project.

15. 𰸅ԭij̎They didnt ask because I was sincere.

16.𰸅ԭij̎Often it will turn out to touch some unexpected

corner of your experience or your education, enabling you to broaden

the story with strength of your own.

 

 

 

Questions 14 through 16 are based on the following talk.

 

The accepted definition of creativity is production of something original

and useful, and it is commonly thought that creativity occurs on the right

side of the brain, and the arts play an important role in enhancing it. But

 according to a new research, creativity isnt about freedom from conc-

rete facts.

Rather, fact-finding is vital in the creative process. It's the result of both

sides of your brain working together. To understand this, we need to ta-

ke a look at what leads to creativity. When you try to solve a problem, y-

ou begin by concentrating on obvious facts and familiar solutions to see

 if the answer lies there. This is done mostly by the left side. However, if

the answer doesn't come, the right and left sides of the brain activate

together. The right side scans remote memories that could be vaguely

relevant.

A wide range of distant information that is normally ignored becomes a-

vailable to the left side. Then the left side catches whatever connection

it may have with the problem, and quickly locks in on it before it escapes.

With extremely focused attention, the brain quickly pulls together these

pieces of thought and combines them into a new single idea, as the brain

recognizes the originality of what it has come up with, a sense of pleasure

will arise.

 

Questions:

14. What do people commonly think of creativity?

15. According to the passage, how does the left side of the brain contribute

to creative process?

16. What is the passage mainly about?

 

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fƪ~Rx^y؄e ͬWƽrҪߌ^

yˮƽ~İlжȣ ˮƽ

14}}^Aˮƽ}_ƪThe accepted definition of

creativity isoľҲDZ^ ăݣvһ˂J

1˼Sԭ˼S2lX3ˇgԼӏ˼

14}Ҫx@x헡

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X˼SáWhen you try to solve a problem, you begin

by concentrating on obvious facts and familiar solutions to see if the

answer lies there. This is done mostly by the left side.@vX

҂ṩfacts and familiar solutionsĹܣ⡰A wide range of

distant information that is normally ignored becomes available to the

 left side.ἰXṩЩױ҂ԻzϢ˵15}

Ĵ𰸑iXá

16}} ּ}錦ƪ´͸

Ҫv˄˼Sı|Լڮa˼S^УXĹ

ܺԡ

 

 

 

Questions 17 through 20 are based on the following conversation.

 

W: Hello, Peter. I heard you worked in a remote village last month.

M: Yes, as a volunteer teaching in a primary school in southeastern China.

W: A good choice for the summer vacation.

M: For me, it is not only a choice, but a responsibility.

W: Youre right. What can a volunteer generally do?

M: Many things, like creating a change in the surroundings, providing

shelter and food to the needy ones.

W: So you mean volunteering is not just donating cash or things

M: RightWe prefer to call that charity.

W: How did you come up with the idea of volunteering?

M: It was my father. He used to supervise a volunteer program in a

non-profit art gallery.

W: Was it a full-time job for him?

M: No, in fact, a part time job. He went to the gallery nearly every

weekend.

W: Wow, this requires great passion.

M: Sure. The best way to volunteer is to get involved in activities we

are passionate about.

W: Have you had any difficulties as a volunteer?

M: Definitely! Lack of respect, acknowledgement, and lack of funds

now and then.

W: Oh, my! Many obstacles!

M: So the most important spirit is perseverance.

W: Id like to join you someday.

M: Any time.

 

Questions

17. What are the two speakers mainly talking about?

18. What volunteer service did the mans father do?

19. What does the man think is the best way to volunteer?

20. According to the man, which of the following is the most important

for a volunteer?

 

 

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ĸXơ ҂һLԒĽɺͺuһ@ε

ȣԒ}־Ը߻ӼPݡһLԒ·һһ

Ԓһfă䌍Ǵ𰸳̎cͬWҪмe

}֮ǰ҂߀иĵ}ĿxAпܳ}Ƀ

ݡһLԒ}·ּ}^Œ}ǑBД}Լ

ǵP^c}˴  rһҪM ^cPI~

҂\Ѓɴ C˽hұMһ ƒݣ

ɵһ}Ŀּ}ڶ ĕrԙzּ}Լ

ďƪļ}the mans father ^ʲôӵ

volunteer serviceλԭHe used to supervise a volunteer

program in a non-profit art gallery. the best

way to volunteer is to get involved in activities we are passi-

onate about. the most important spirit is perseverance.

 @}𰸶dz@ּ}ҲԶˣvolunteer experience

 

II. Grammar and Vocabulary

Section A

Directions: After reading the passage below, fill in the blanks to

make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the

blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form

of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best

fits each blank.

Wؑң

 

In what is one of the most breath-taking sights of nature, mil-

lions of Oliver Ridley baby turtles broke out of their eggshells

under the sand at one of their mass nesting ground in Coastal

Orissa, India. After emerging from the nests in the Rushikylya

river mouth, in the southern district of Ganjam, some 174 kil-

ometers form Bhubanesshwar, the hatchings start their journey

towards the Bay of Bengal.

Orissa is the home three mass nesting sites of the endangered

Oliver turtles, namely Nasi island of Gahirmatha beach in Ken-

drapada district, Devi river mouth in Puri district and Rushikulya

river mouth.

Gahirmatha is considered one of the worlds largest nesting sites

 which around 70 to 80 million turtles lay at least 120-150 eggs in

one go. Hatchings emerge from eggs after about 40 to 60 days. It

 is believed that the Oliver turtles return to the same beach to nest

where they were themselves hatched.

At least 52 villagers and forest guards protect the baby turtles. In

the recent times, sea erosion has led to many turtles nest being

damaged. Predators like dogs, jackals and birds take their toll on t

he nesting turtles. Mechanized trawlers along the coast also play a

role in the massacre of thousands of these omnivorous sea turtles.

Like tigers and elephants, the Oliver Ridley turtle is protected under

schedule 1 of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. They should be pro-

tected at any cost. Operation Mohanty has been coordinating the

operation for the conservation of these turtles.

        Each year, from December to April, Gahirmatha plays host to hundreds

and thousands of females Olive Ridley turtles. These turtles lay their eggs

on the same beach where they were born. Turtles always return to the same

nesting site year after year, even if they migrate thousands of kilometers.

This particular phenomenon has baffled scientists for years now and no one

 has any clue as to why they do so.

 

ؑ𰸣ǹٷwhat, as soon as, that, where, threatened, are

deposited, themselves; being damaged, by, have reduced. xԓṩĴ𰸣

 

 

 

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In what is one of the most breath-taking sights of nature, millions of

Oliver Ridley baby turtles broke out of their eggshells under the sand

at one of their mass nesting ground in Coastal Orissa, India. After

emerging from the nests in the Rushikylya river mouth, in the southern

 district of Ganjam, some 174 kilometers form Bhubanesshwar, the

 hatchings start their journey towards the Bay of Bengal.

         @ˇ@^ֹȻ^У԰fӋĊWӡ

غW_һ؏ɳµĵ@˳ĸZķϲ؅^

RushikilyyaӿڣxBhubanesshwars174ijѨг@Щ

_ʼϼMl

       Orissa is the home three mass nesting sites of the endangered

 Oliver turtles, namely Nasi island of Gahirmatha beach in Kendrapada

district, Devi river mouth in Puri district and Rushikulya river mouth.

W_uǞlR^ĊWҎģأքeǿϵ_^

wR{u^¾Sӿںʲӿڡ

    Gahirmatha is considered one of the worlds largest nesting sites

which around 70 to 80 million turtles lay at least 120-150 eggs in one

go. Hatchings emerge from eggs after about 40 to 60 days. It is belie-

ved that the Oliver turtles return to the same beach to nest where they

 were themselves hatched.

    wRJ֮һsǧfǧfֻһ

ٮa120150s4060ѷ˂JW

صԼĺ

At least 52 villagers and forest guards protect the baby turtles. In

 the recent times, sea erosion has led to many turtles nest being

damaged. Predators like dogs, jackals and birds take their toll on

the nesting turtles. Mechanized trawlers along the coast also play

 a role in the massacre of thousands of these omnivorous sea turtles.

    52oֆToСgSຣijѨ⵽Ɖġ

񹷡B@ӵʳߕĺrغęCеϾWOҲ

ǧֻsʳҲƲá

Like tigers and elephants, the Oliver Ridley turtle is protected under

 schedule 1 of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. They should be pro-

tected at any cost. Operation Mohanty has been coordinating the

operation for the conservation of these turtles.

cϻʹһӣWҲܵ1972꡶Ұﱣo

1ıoԓϧκδrõoĪhЄһֱڅf{o@

ЩЄӡ

          Each year, from December to April, Gahirmatha plays host to hun-

dreds and thousands of females Olive Ridley turtles. These turtles lay

their eggs on the same beach where they were born. Turtles always return

 to the same nesting site year after year, even if they migrate thousands

 of kilometers. This particular phenomenon has baffled scientists for years

 now and no one has any clue as to why they do so.

          ÿ꣬12µ4£wR_ҪӴfӋĴԊW

@ЩͬһϮaѡһػصͬһ

cʹw˔ǧ@NĬFһֱ_ƌWң]

֪ʲô@

 

 

mȻ]ԇͨ^ĿṩĴ𰸣҂܉lFθ߿}

漰ĸ߿Zc

 

1.    ~ԏľ䣨what~ԏľB~

2.    rgZľB~as soon as

3.    {䣨it +be+{+that+ɣ

4.    Zľ䣨where

5.    ^Zthreatened, being damaged

6.    ~by

7.    rBͱZBhave reduced, are deposited

8.    ~themselves

 

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    䌍W^߿Zn̵ČWy@Щ֪Rc҂n϶Ԕ

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һƪdzƵ¡ȻʷŒWf^yv

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    ˣСoλ俼߿ČWһdz\Ľhİ

}²ҪţһҪoط}Ŀ뿼Ă֪Rcٸǰ

ĺ¾߉݋PϵMбeСҰ@ӵķ}ô

ZƪՌfСcase

 

 

Section B

Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the

box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word m-

ore than you need.

Wؑ棩       

 

 

A. comprehensively B. naturally C. focus      D. moderate     E. distraction 

 F. counting      G. worsening              H. performing      I. modified       

  J. determined    K. environmental

Myopia, or short-sightedness, is a condition in which distant objects

 appear blurred, but closer objects can usually be seen in sharp focus.

Its biological basis is an eye that, during childhood, has grown too long

for its optical power. The focal plane for images of distant objects ends

up in front of the retina, causing out-of-focus perception.

Fortunately, mild to moderate levels of myopia can be readily modified

with spectacles, contact lenses or laser surgery, which flattens the front

 of the eye.

But prevention is better than correcting the optical defocus. Fortunately,

 spending more time outdoors may decrease children's chances of deve-

loping myopia.

       Finding the cause

       Myopia was once regarded as almost totally genetically determined. But its

prevalence has increased spectacularly in urban mainland China, Hong Kong,

Taiwan, Singapore, Japan and South Korea, where 80- 90% of those completing

high school are now short-sighted. This is up from 20-30% only two generations

ago.

       Since gene pools do not change that fast, these massive changes must be

due to environmental change.

       In 2005, we comprehensively reviewed the research on myopia and found a

correlation with education. (This was not a particularly novel insight; such a link

was postulated as far back as Kepler in 1604.) We found locations with a high p-

revalence of myopia were all top performers in surveys of international educati-

onal outcomes.

       Fortunately, not all high performing locations, Australia among them, show-

ed a high prevalence of myopia. This shows that high educational outcomes do

not necessarily lead to myopia.

       We also hypothesised that all human population groups had a tendency to

develop myopia under particular environmental conditions. Indeed, Australia has

 naturally low level of myopia with a lifestyle that emphasizes outdoor activities.

 Young children report spending two to three hours a day outside, not counting

time outdoors at school. However, there are formidable barrier to achieving this b

enchmark in locations where spending time outdoors is seen as a distraction from

study.

       Policy responses must therefore also aim to slow the progression my myopia,

 the phenomenon in which mild to moderate myopia becomes more severe during

childhood. There is currently controversy over whether time outdoors slows prog-

ression, but strong seasonal effects on progression suggest that it may.

       School regimes which give a sufficient place to time outdoors may reduce both

the onset and progression of myopia. These school-based interventions will need

to be supplemented by clinical interventions, such as the use of atropine eye drops.

 

ԭģWe can prevent an epidemic of short-sighted kids with more time outdoors
rg2015.7.21

ߣIan Morgan, Australian National University; Kathryn Rose, University of Tech-

nology Sydney

 

 

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Step1: ȰѴx헵~Զע

A.comprehensively  adv.    B.naturally  adv.     C.focus n./v.        D.moderate adj.

E.distraction  n.     F. counting  n./v.     G.worsening v./adj.    H.performing  n/.v.

I.modified  v./adj.           J.determined v./adj.   K.environmental  adj.

Step 2:ͨxȫģ߅Ax߅Д~ԡ

ͨxȫ҂lFҪPĽҕ vs.ӑӕrgAҕĬF

{ġ҂ČW߀ǺNġ

31.Cfocus.һ_TҊɽȫPI~myopiaorB~ጣʲô

myopiashort-sightednessҕҕhxwģx

wƜy-focus˳Ҋġc۽⣬߀С֮⡣

32.Imodified. pȵжȵĽҕͨ^۾spectaclescontact lenses[

Rlaser surgerygƜy{ƣ֮⡣modify޸ģ

ġ

33.Jdetermined. ҕһȱҕȫcgeneticallyzWPsince

 gene pools do not change that fastMһCҕJzģġ

34.Kenvironmental. fЇꑣۣ_ȵ؅^ɸЌWI˽ҕ

_80%-90%ǰɴ20%-30%Since gene pools do not change that fast

ڻ׃]ô죬ô@׃ֻǁⲿġenvironmentalhģ܇ġ

35.Acomprehensively. @պ@adv., ABwe reviewed the research

@Ȼȱһʽĸ~ӵػȫľCϵĻlFҕͽPӑՓ

h}

36.Hperforming. @high-performingĵtop performers.

we found locations with a high prevalence of myopia were all top performers

in surveys of international educational outcomes.L䡣we found (that)

locations were all top performers in survey. ҂lF(߶Ƚҕ)؅^ڇH

ɹ{жDZFõġwith a high prevalence of myopiaZlocations,

ӵĵ؅^

Not all locations showed a high prevalence of myopia.и߿Ч؅^

Ǹ߶Ƚҕ؅^do not necessarily lead to myopiaһC

37.Bnaturally. Yģи߿Ч؅^Ǹ߶Ƚҕ؅^оصe˰

ļgϷAustralia has low level of myopiaһӣlowǰ

ȱһadv.ӵصͽҕȣֻʣnaturallyһ~ĺZwith a lifestyle

 that emphasizes outdoor activitiesӵʽҕȲߡ

38.Fcounting. нСтһڑ2-3Сr߀όWrgđ

ӡ

39.Edistraction. нthere are formidable barrier to achieving this bench

mark in locationsҪᵽĸ߿Ч؅^FLrgо޴ϵKʲô

أlocations where spending time outdoors Mrg`W,distraction

 from studyɢWע

40.Dmoderate. Ҳּڜpҕlչthe phenomenon in which mild

to moderate myopia becomes more severe during childhood.ҕFڃͯp

ȵжȽҕ׃øӇءڶmild to moderate levels of myopia.

 

III. Reading Comprehension

Section A

Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked

A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.

Wؑ棩       

 

Were told that writing is dying. Typing on keyboards and screens dominates

 written communication today. Even scribing a signature has become rarer due

to the prevalence of chip-and-pin credit cards.

In an age where our children swipe, pinch and tap on smart phones and tablets

from birth, is the hand in handwriting about to be removed forever? And

 are there benefits to good old-fashioned pen and paper: artistic posterity cog-

nitive benefits or something else?

Pen decline

Learning cursive, joined-up handwriting was once compulsory in schools. But now,

 not so much. Countries such as Finland have dropped joined up handwriting les-

sons in schools in favor of typing courses and in the US, the requirement to learn

cursive has been left out of core standards since 2013. A few US states still place

value on formative cursive education, such as Arizona, but theyve not majority.

Some experts point out that writing lessons can have indirect benefits. Anne Tr-

ubek, author of The History and Uncertain Future of Handwriting, argues that such

lessons can reinforce a skill called automaticity. Thats when youve perfected a

task, and can do it almost without thinking, granting you extra mental bandwidth

to think about or do other things while youre doing the task. In this sense, Trubek

 likens handwriting to driving.

Once you have driven for a while, you dont consciously think Step on gas now

 or Turn the steering wheel a bit, she explains. You just do it.

           Thats what we want children to acquire when leaning to write. You and I dont

 think now make a loop going up for the I or now look for the better.

Trubek has written many essays and books on handwriting, and she doesnt believe it

will die out for a very long time, if ever. But she believes students are learning aut-

omaticity faster with keyboards than with handwriting. Students are learning how to t-

ype without looking at the keys at earlier ages, and to type faster than they could write,

granting them extra time to think about a word choice or sentence structure.

            In a piece penned (if youll pardon the expression) for the New York Times last

year, Trubek argued that due to the improved automaticity of keyboards, todays chil-

dren may well become better communication in text as handwriting takes up less of their

education. This is a view that has attracted both criticism and support.

She explains that two of the most common arguments she hears from detractors re-

garding the decline of handwriting is that not protecting it will result in a loss of

history and a loss of personal touch.

On the former she counters that 95% of handwritten manuscripts cant be read by

the average person anyway-thats why we have paleographers, she explains,

 paleography being the study of ancient styles of writing- while the latter refers to

 the warm associations we give to handwritten personal notes, such as thank-you

 cards.

what it signals is that someone took time; that is a more labor-intensive, and t

herefore meaningful communication, says Trubek. I counter that there are lots

of ways to show we care and take time to do so- send a batch of cookies, say, if

your cursive isnt good

 

BBCһƪ„ the uncertain future of handwriting.

 

 

cu

 

 ԓƪhՓģ_^һΡWere told that writing is dying. Typing on keyboards and

screens dominates written communication today. Even scribing a signature has become

 rarer due to the prevalence of chip-and-pin credit cards. ՓcȻҪͨ^

TrubekһЩP^cչ_Փ̽ӑ˂ڡδֵ^cһv^

ϺӢZԇ}ij}ͬWƽrҪעضx⿯Wվ„

UչһЩ†~~MBӢZ˼SӢZZС

 

 

Section B

Directions: Read the following three passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or

unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the

 one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have read.

Wؑ棩       

A

 

                        The Work You Do, the Person You Are

The pleasure of being necessary to my parents was profound. I was not like the

children in folktales: burdensome mouths to feed.

 

All I had to do for the two dollars was clean her house for a few hours after

 school. It was a beautiful house, too, with a plastic-covered sofa and chairs,

 wall-to-wall blue-and-white carpeting, a white enamel stove, a washing

machine and a dryerthings that were common in her neighborhood,

absent in mine. In the middle of the war, she had butter, sugar, steaks,

and seam-up-the-back stockings.

I knew how to scrub floors on my knees and how to wash clothes in our

zinc tub, but I had never seen a hoover vacuum cleaner or an iron that

wasnt heated by fire.

Part of my pride in working for her was earning money I could squander:

 on movies, candy, paddle balls, jacks, ice-cream cones. But a larger part

 of my pride was based on the fact that I gave half my wages to my mother,

which meant that some of my earnings were used for real thingsan

insurance-policy payment or what was owed to the milkman or the iceman.

The pleasure of being necessary to my parents was profound. I was not like

 the children in folktales: burdensome mouths to feed, nuisances to be

corrected, problems so severe that they were abandoned to the forest.

I had a status that doing routine chores in my house did not provideand

it earned me a slow smile, an approving nod from an adult. Confirmations

that I was adult like, not childlike.

In those days, the forties, children were not just loved or liked; they were

needed. They could earn money; they could care for children younger than

themselves; they could work the farm, take care of the herd, run errands,

and much more. I suspect that children arent needed in that way now.

They are loved, doted on, protected, and helped. Fine, and yet . . .

Little by little, I got better at cleaning her housegood enough to be

given more to do, much more. I was ordered to carry bookcases upstairs

and, once, to move a piano from one side of a room to the other. I fell

carrying the bookcases. And after pushing the piano my arms and legs

hurt so badly. I wanted to refuse, or at least to complain, but I was afraid

she would fire me, and I would lose the freedom the dollar gave me, as

well as the standing I had at homealthough both were slowly being

eroded. She began to offer me her clothes, for a price. Impressed by

these worn things, which looked simply gorgeous to a little girl who

 had only two dresses to wear to school, I bought a few. Until my mother

asked me if I really wanted to work for castoffs. So I learned to say No,

 thank you to a faded sweater offered for a quarter of a weeks pay.

Still, I had trouble summoning the courage to discuss or object to the

increasing demands she made. And I knew that if I told my mother how

 unhappy I was she would tell me to quit. Then one day, alone in the

 kitchen with my father, I let drop a few whines about the job. I gave him

details, examples of what troubled me, yet although he listened intently,

I saw no sympathy in his eyes. No Oh, you poor little thing. Perhaps

 he understood that what I wanted was a solution to the job, not an escape

 from it. In any case, he put down his cup of coffee and said, Listen. You

 dont live there. You live here. With your people. Go to work. Get your

 money. And come on home.

That was what he said. This was what I heard:

1. Whatever the work is, do it wellnot for the boss but for yourself.

2. You make the job; it doesnt make you.

3. Your real life is with us, your family.

4. You are not the work you do; you are the person you are.

I have worked for all sorts of people since then, geniuses and morons,

quick-witted and dull, bighearted and narrow. Ive had many kinds of

jobs, but since that conversation with my father I have never considered

the level of labor to be the measure of myself, and I have never placed

the security of a job above the value of home. 

Դ Toni Morrison2017529̖lڡ~s͡(The New

Yorker)ϵһƪ¡

 

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µһ֞룬Vxߣ˵õԪҪԼ

˼һЩ@֣҂܉˽⵽߼˼Ҿrđ

µڶ֣v@헹ijڎoԺУIԼϲgĖ|

Naã@øĸĿ϶߀ǂӂıҪͬFں

ӂıۡ

µ֣Sċ죬ɰloyĹ@

ʹ_ʼЩġ]ﱧԹ߀LjԳֹ

µIJ֣߽KڌH_飬Մڹy

Hһ_ʹ˜\ԺĹahӰ푡

 

 

                                      B

 

Geographers are interested in the spatial patterns observed on earth.

Bridging the natural and social sciences, Geography is the interdisciplinary

study of environments and how people interact with the environment. It

is important to study geography because many of the world's problems

require understanding the interdependence between human activities and

the environment. Geography is therefore a beneficial major for students

because its theories and methods provide them with analytical skills relevant

 to occupations focused on solving social and environmental problems.

The Department of Geography offers eight majors that help students tailor

 their focus of study.

 

        The Geography - Globalization and Development major will provide students

with a sophisticated understanding of contemporary global issues and a geographical

framework for analyzing key issues involved in national and international development,

 especially as it relates to the global south. Reflecting the discipline of geography as a

 whole, this major emphasizes an integrated approach to studying the relationship of

global change to individual and community well-being by combining the benefits of

area studies with theoretical and topical investigations in the curriculum.


       Our department is committed to excellence in both teaching and advising. Several

of our faculty members have received teaching awards, and we are known across campus

for the quality of our advising. As a geography major, you will meet one-on-one with

your faculty advisor every semester during advising week, and you are always welcome

to talk with your advisor at any time throughout the semester whenever questions may

 arise. In addition to advising our students about their academic programs, we provide

timely information about internships, nationally competitive awards and other opportunities

 as they arise. Many of our students complete internships and several of our students over

 the last few years have received nationally competitive awards.


       For more information about our program, please view this video, visit our website, or

contact our Undergraduate Chair, whose information is listed above.


      With a liberal arts degree in Geography-Globalization and Development, students are

prepared for employment in a variety of fields, including non-profit and government work,

particularly in the areas of community and international development. This degree will also

prepare students well to work in the private sector in an international context. Graduates

from this program will also be well situated to continue on to graduate school or law school,

 with research and professional interest in academic fields, including, but not limited to, ge-

ography, public affairs and policy, development studies, and community and regional planning.


       Browse through dozens of internship opportunities and full-time job postings for Ohio

University students and alumni on Bobcat CareerLink. OHIO's key resource for researching

 jobs, employers, workshops, and professional development events.

 

ā⿯WپWWַhtps://www.ohio.edu/majors/undergrad/programs.cfm?

programID=14588

 

 

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                                   C

 Ŀǰδҵɿ}Ŀ

Section C

Directions: Read the following passage. Fill in each blank with a proper sentence given in the box. Each

sentence can be used only once. Note that there are two more sentences than you need.

Wؑ棩       

 

The psychology of being a sports fanx

Our research has shown that the No. 1 reason people become fans is that its your

connection to your first community, said Adam Earnhardt, chairman of the com-

munications department at Youngstown State University and co-author of Sports

Fans, Identity and Socialization: Exploring the Fandemonium.

I dont care if a Seattle fan moves to China, he or she carries with them their love

 for the sports teams, he said. That identity is first and foremost.

In that sense, your favorite team can serve the same purpose as church and family:

Fostering a sense of belonging. And when a team begins to catch fire, as with, say,

the Mariners in 95 or the Seahawks of recent vintage, well, its easy to get swept

up in the wave.

Euphoria is contagious, as is tragedy, said Long Island-based sports psycholo

gist Richard Lustberg. Its very difficult in a relatively small town not to get

caught up in the euphoria. My best guess is if youre not caught up in Seahawks

 mania, youre out of step. Its almost like theres peer pressure to be part of it.

Theres a universal need to belong, added Christian End, associate professor

 of psychology at Xavier University and longtime researcher of fan behavior. Its

almost to the point if youre not identifying with the team, people are thinking,

Whats up with you? Youre violating the norm.

Victories and losses, though not necessarily relevant to the far-reaching impact

of fandom, can have profound immediate effect, not always positive. Studies have

 linked reckless driving, heart attacks and domestic violence to the outcome of

sporting events.

According to a 2013 study published in Psychological Science, fans were found

to eat healthier when their team won. Two researchers at INSEAD Business School

compared outcomes from two seasons worth of NFL games with food consumption

 in more than two dozen cities. They found that people in cities with a losing

football team ate about 16 percent more saturated fat on Monday compared to

their usual consumption. And people in winning cities ate about 9percent less

saturated fats trends that held true even when non-football fans were included

in the sample.

Those results were replicated in a study of French sports fans, leading the researchers

 to hypothesize that people feel an identity threat when their favorite team loses and

 are more likely to use eating as a coping mechanism.

When your team loses, its like you lose a part of yourself, because your identity

 is so merged with the identity of the team and the fan community, lead rese-

archer Yann Cornil said by phone from Singapore. Sports in the U.S. makes such

a difference in peoples lives, a loss can be distressing and result in binge eating.

A famous study by Paul Bernhardt at Georgia State University in 1998 showed that

 male spectators of sporting events experience the same testosterone surges as the

 players themselves an increase of about 20 percent by fans of winning teams,

and a similar decrease in losing fans.

Scientists have also noted what are called mirror neurons in our brains, activ-

ated not just by participation in sports, but by watching others participate. These

findings help explain the profound sense of vicarious connection to athletes.(ԇ

пфh

Its phenomenal, said Simons. We have this ability to understand other

people so remarkably that their victories literally become ours. Our testosterone

literally responds to their victory. The more we follow a team, the deeper the bond

becomes. Theyre us, and competing on a literal level as us a little extension of

 us.

Professor Robert Cialdini at Arizona State University came up with the term BIRG 

Basking In Reflected Glory to describe the intense pride fans feel when their

teams succeed. It can be used as a verb, as in, Seahawks fans are currently

BIRGing up a storm.

The counterpoint, as coined by researchers C.R. Snyder, MaryAnne Lassergard

and Carol E. Ford, is the concept of CORFing Cutting Off Reflected Failure.

This refers to the inclination by fans to distance themselves from their team

after a defeat. Weve all heard it in action: We won, but they lost.

This leads into another concept, that of cognitive bias, also known as confirmation

bias, which causes fans to help explain away defeats by blaming outside factors,

 such as referees. Im sure it would also help explain why Seahawks fans rallied

 around Richard Sherman after his postgame interview, rationalizing behavior

that was widely criticized by many fans with no vested interest.

It could also explain the notion of eustress, invented by endocrinologist Hans

 Selye to refer to a combination of euphoria and stress, such as that resulting from

watching tense sporting events. Indeed, its much of the appeal.

Դhttps://www.seattletimes.com/sports/the -psychology-of-being-a-sports-fan/

 

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@ƪxԡňDr󡷣ԓČLarry Stone2014215̖ǣ

һwԵ@ƪWķһdzҊ^Wg

҂ƽrx^@ЩƫIIҲ҂c

_^_TҊɽĸV҂һ۽zɞһķ۽zĵһԭc֮g

Bӣ@ͺڽ̻Ǽͥڱ˴֮gdzĚwٸС

hȥֵ_^ȸV҂Oȵd^ЂȾԵģe˶еOd^ĕr

ڌwٸжͬӵĸͬܣwٸ˂С

汻hȥĴƪͨ^eĸV҂@NձԼ҂

ճӰ푣ϲgA˱ِԒԵø֮ݔĿܕ

ʳ۵ݔˌڷ۽zӰǷdz޴ģԵIJGͪˮƽԼX\

ʽҡ

½o҂2W BIRG  Basking In Reflected GloryԼCORFing

Cutting Off Reflected FailureȻ҂ľܵϲӰ֮҂

ăĕһЩұlCƣA˕ӵ_ģݔ˕ĵhc@“ϵ

˃ɂӌWgĸcognitive bias, also known as confirmation

biasJ֪ƫҊҲݔԿϲgⲿԭдڣ߀һeustress

eOeuphoria@ƪµһl~CKһˮͽeuphoriaԢOȵĿ옷

 

IV. Summary Writing

Directions: Read the following passage. Summarize the main idea and the main point(s) of the passage

in no more than 60 words. Use your own words as far as possible.

Wؑ棩      

 

It's undeniable: Being among the first to try out a new piece of technology is cool.

Theres the the thrill of doing what has never been done before the feeling that

youre living in the future. And when youre the sole member of your social circle

with the latest hot gadget, people stare in fascination. They ask you questions. They

 see you as the holder of powerful, secret knowledge for a little while, until the next

big thing comes along. People tend to underestimate the costs of this temporary

coolness, which they pay in more ways than one. Dont fall into the early adopter

trap. Dont join the first wave of consumers who invest in the latest media-hyped

 hardware; instead, wait and see.

 

First, the earliest versions of devices are not only expensive, they are also the most

expensive that those devices will ever be. Companies are presumably attempting to

recover the cost of production as fast as they can, and they know that there are serious

tech-lovers who will pay a great deal to be first. Once the revenues from early adopters

 purchases are safely in their hands, they can cut the price and shift to the next marke-

ting phase: selling the product to everyone else. This is why the cost of the original

iPhone dropped about US $200 only eight months after its release.

 

Speaking of becoming obsolete, those who are first to leap into a new technology risk

 wasting money and time on something that will never catch on. Do you remember high-

definition DVDs (HD DVDs)? Neither do a lot of people. In 2006, two competing formats

for high-definition video entered the market: HD DVDs and Blueray discs. Both seemed

promising, and both required players costing hundreds of US dollars. Cautious consumers

 decided to stay neutralrealizing that one or the other would probably end up dominating

and it was difficult to say which. But a few eager consumers rolled the dice and bought an

HD DVD player that soon became virtually worthless. For reasons that are not entirely clear-

Blu-ray has no obvious technological advantage over its rival-the HD DVD format lost. Sales

 dropped steadily, and in early 2008 HD DVD players were discontinued. Many new products

are similarly doomed to never make it; the early adopters are then stuck with pricey gadgets

that do nothing but sit on their shelves collecting dust. And as the story of HD DVD shows,

which products survive may be quite arbitrary, so even the most knowledgeable among us

 can be taken by surprise.

 

Another good reason to resist the early-adoption temptation is that the first version of a

product typically has defects that cost a lot in time and frustration. For example, when

Microsoft's latest game console, Xbox One, was released in 2013, users immediately began

to complain of problems. Some of them were malfunctions of the motion sensor, while

others involved users being unable to get their machines online. Dedicated gamers worked

to find and share work-around solutions to these issues. Such problems are so common

with new technology that early adopters are basically unpaid beta testers and troubleshooters.

 

Unless this sounds to you like a fun way to spend your time, don t be among the first users.

If you wait to learn what the problems are with a new electronic gadget, you can look forward

to a smoother experience-or choose a less troublesome product.

 

cu

 

ƪžһƪY^͵hՓģɲá_^βжץ׾䣬KϡķʽMи

Being among the first to try out a new piece of technology is cool. c instead, wait and

see׶βһһβcUߵĺ^cɞһ¼gćLԇߴһЩLU

Ķβ־͇Lԇ¼gеLUԵԭMԔMĔεĶ׾䡰First, the earliest

versions of devices are not only expensive, they are also the most expensive that those devices

 will ever be. Speaking of becoming obsolete, those who are first to leap into a new techn-

ology risk wasting money and time on something that will never catch on. Another good

reason to resist the early-adoption temptation is that the first version of a product typically

has defects that cost a lot in time and frustration.քeἰc1aƷrF2

MXLU3aƷȱݡ

Yβĵ΄tٴcе^cβͨ^lZľɞʹߵIJ֮̎

SWrע⿂ֿYʽľOã⣬жβֵcԭͨ^^õ߉݋~

Rfirst, secondMд“βɾҪעԣҪ^چ¡

 

 

V. Translation

Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.

1.c, һc!  (patient) 

2. cWrȣλʿֱ!  (How)

3. Swu֏, λI܇ֵĊZډ벻bɼ normal

4. ֵһ, ώӰ, ͬ‚PעӂŬ,ijɿ (asas)

 

𰸅

 

1.Grandpa has some hearing problems, so we should be patient with him.

Since grandpa has some trouble hearing well, be patient with him.

2. How quite different the soldier is from himself in school days!

3. As the amateur cyclist's physical strength gradually becomes normal, his dream of being the

champion is no longer distant/ out of reach/beyond his reach.

4. What is worth mentioning is that under the influence of Teacher Wang, his colleagues dont

pay as much attention to scores/results as to students efforts.

 

 

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ͬWgrҪľ͡~M_Zʴ_澫ʰաͷ棺һ} ǰ߉݋Pϵ

ДԷgsinceԭZľ䣻}tgasĠZľ䣬ʾSĺx

}t~ԏľеZľͱZľġ_棺be patient with beyond ones reach

Ҋ_^AҪͬWƽreۡZҪעzrBZB^һº;Ć}

 

 

 

VI. Guided Writing 

Directions: Write an English composition in 120-150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.

Wؑ棩

s־ϿPڹųǵĽBTƱο5Ԫο15Ԫ˸ՈĿǽo

݋һҪ

1.Bs־Ͽă

2.ԼĿ

 

ώ

 

Dear editors,

I have seen the detailed introduction to XX Ancient City from your magazine. What impresses me

 most is the fact that the admission ticket charges domestic visitors $5, while the price goes up to

$15 for inbound tourists. Actually, this is not an isolated case. Many scenic spots have adopted

similar differential pricing schemes.

  So far as Im concerned, such strategy, in the long term, might not bring about continued and

steady increase in profits as they expected, but rather, some negative effects will most probably

arise.

  Firstly, it is self-evident that tourism economy largely depends on word-of-mouth recommendation.

What else might incur more criticism than being judged unfairly since the very beginning? Instead,

a memorable visiting experience should involve high quality services, such as admission, food and

souvenirs, among which, respect for all comes first.

  Secondly, while many have justified this differential pricing strategy, it is a clear violation against

Tourism Ticket Price Management Law issued nearly two decades ago. The law obviously stipulated

 that tourist attractions should not distinguish between domestic and foreign tourists, which, again,

 reminds us of the essence of fair dealing.

Thirdlydifferentiating admission price may not necessarily be the best choice in mining tourists

consumption. Take West Lake for example. By opening West Lake for free in 2003, Hangzhou has

attracted thousands of visitors from home and abroad, generating an income of tens of millions

RMB per year in tourism alone.

  All in all, the management of tourist resorts requires more courage and wisdom. It is strongly reco-

mmended that XX Ancient City should treat visitors equally in admission price. And we are all looking

forward to a healthier development of the tourism industry in China.

                                                     Yours,

                                                     Li

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ʧx2.`PҎϣοƽȣ3.efּƱrδ\ѷʽ

԰ݲֿYָּƱrhһҕͬʣЇИI԰lչ

  ͬWҲԏĴ˴θ߿йиQĬF𣬶Pע߅ğc„һƽr˼ռ

ڄӹPğѪ꣡

 

WݣՈPע:http://www.qdmlyi.icu/

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